Posted November 15, 2009on:
Joseph M Juran focused on Quality Control as an integral part of management control in his lectures to the Japanese in the early 1950s. He believes that Quality does not happen by accident, it must be planned, and that Quality Planning is part of the trilogy of planning, control and improvement. He warns that there are no shortcuts to quality.
There are many aspects to Juran’s message on quality. Intrinsic is the belief that quality does not happen by accident, it must be planned. His recent book Juran on Planning for Quality is perhaps the definitive guide to Juran’s current thoughts and his structured approach to company-wide quality planning. His earlier Quality Control Handbook was much more technical in nature.
Juran sees quality planning as part of the quality trilogy of quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. The key elements in implementing company-wide strategic quality planning are in turn seen as identifying customers and their needs; establishing optimal quality goals; creating measurements of quality; planning processes capable of meeting quality goals under operating conditions; and producing continuing results in improved market share, premium prices, and a reduction of error rates in the office and factory.
Juran’s Quality Planning Road Map consists of the following steps:
# Identify who are the customers.
# Determine the needs of those customers.
# Translate those needs into our language.
# Develop a product that can respond to those needs.
# Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs as well as customer needs.
# Develop a process which is able to produce the product.
# Optimise the process.
# Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions.
# Transfer the process to Operations.
Illustration of Quality Trilogy via a Control Chart
Juran concentrates not just on the end customer, but identifies other external and internal customers. This effects his concept of quality since one must also consider the ‘fitness of use’ of the interim product for the following internal customers. He illustrates this idea via the Quality Spiral.
His formula for results is:
# Establish specific goals to be reached.
# Establish plans for reaching the goals.
# Assign clear responsibility for meeting the goals.
# Base the rewards on results achieved.
Dr Juran warns that there are no shortcuts to quality and is sceptical of companies that rush into applying Quality Circles, since he doubts their effectiveness in the West. He believes that the majority of quality problems are the fault of poor management, rather than poor workmanship on the shop-floor. In general, he believes that management controllable defects account for over 80% of the total quality problems. Thus he claims that Philip Crosby’s Zero Defects approach does not help, since it is mistakenly based on the idea that the bulk of quality problems arise because workers are careless and not properly motivated.