Guru kualiti antaranya…siri#4
Posted November 15, 2009on:
W Edwards Deming introduced concepts of variation to the Japanese and also a systematic approach to problem solving, which later became known as the Deming or PDCA cycle. Later in the West he concentrated on management issues and produced his famous 14 Points. He remains active today and he has attempted a summary of his 60 years experience in his System of Profound Knowledge
Deming encouraged the Japanese to adopt a systematic approach to problem solving, which later became known as the Deming or PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Action) cycle. He also pushed senior managers to become actively involved in their company’s quality improvement programmes.
Deming produced his 14 Points for Management, in order to help people understand and implement the necessary transformation. Deming said that adoption of, and action on, the 14 points are a signal that management intend to stay in business. They apply to small or large organisations, and to service industries as well as to manufacturing. However the 14 points should not be seen as the whole of his philosophy, or as a recipe for improvement. They need careful discussion in the context of one’s own organisation.
Before his death Deming appears to have attempted a summary of his 60 years’ experience. This he called the System of Profound Knowledge. It describes four interrelated parts:
Appreciation for a system
This emphasises the need for managers to understand the relationships between functions and activities. Everyone should understand that the long term aim is for everybody to gain – employees, share holders, customers, suppliers, and the environment. Failure to accomplish the aim causes loss to everybody in the system.
Knowledge of statistical theory
This includes knowledge about variation, process capability, control charts, interactions and loss function. All these need to be understood to accomplish effective leadership, teamwork etc.
Theory of knowledge
All plans require prediction based on past experience. An example of success cannot be successfully copied unless the theory is understood.
Knowledge of psychology
It is necessary to understand human interactions. Differences between people must be used for optimisation by leaders. People have intrinsic motivation to succeed in many areas. Extrinsic motivators in employment may smother intrinsic motivation. These include pay rises and performance grading, although these are sometimes viewed as a way out for managers.